Genetic Mutation Detection of Swamp Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) form South Sumatra using Mathematical Model Application of Phylip Programs and Bioinformatics Multiple Sequence Alligmen
Mathematical models are one way to observe genetic changes that occur in species. The field of molecular biology cannot be separated from mathematical calculations in terms of determining the size of DNA, genetic variation and mutation, or species kinship. The mathematical application PHYLIP is used to study the genetic mutation and kinship of swamp buffaloes. Swamp buffaloes from South Sumatra has several variants which are distinguished based on their morphology. Differences in henotype and genotype are related to the occurence of gene mutation. In this study genetic mutations in swamp buffalo DNA werebased on mitochondrial genome d-loop region sequencing using PHYLIP mathematical modeling applications and analysis of multiple sequence allignment bioinformatics. DNA sequences obtained will be compared with genebank data, to determine the mutations that occur. The results of the analysis of multiple sequence bioinformatics allignment showed the sequential base length of the mitochondrial genome d-loop region sequentially for hb, bb, mb, and lb samples were 704 bp; 679 bp; 704 bp; and 654 bp. Based on the PHYLIP analysis, it is known that mutations in the mitochondrial genome d-loop sequence (Bubalusbubalis) are very high, namely 159 transversal substitution mutations, 67 transition substitution, 4 insertions and 12 deletions. The highest mutation value was found in bb samples (67 tranversion mutations, 29 transition mutations, 2 insertions, and 2 deletions). Dendrograms are made using paired groups without weights with arithmetic averages and genetic similarity coefficients using the Jaccard coefficient of similarity. Dendogram data showed that the percentage of similarity of Lampung buffaloes with bubaluscarabanesis was 98.27%, while black, red and striped buffaloes had a similarity percentage below 90%. These results indicate that the buffalo Lampung is a migrant species, while the black, red and striped buffalo variants are native buffalo species from South Sumatra.